If material bodies have inherent, animating powers—or virtues, in the premodern sense—then those bodies typically and most insistently associated in the premodern period with matter—namely, women—cannot be inert and therefore incapable of ethical action, Holly Crocker contends. In The Matter of Virtue, Crocker argues that one idea of what it means to be human—a conception of humanity that includes vulnerability, endurance, and openness to others—emerges when we consider virtue in relation to modes of ethical action available to premodern women. While a misogynistic tradition of virtue ethics, from antiquity to the early modern period, largely cast a skeptical or dismissive eye on women, Crocker seeks to explore what happened when poets thought about the material body not as a tool of an empowered agent whose cultural supremacy was guaranteed by prevailing social structures but rather as something fragile and open, subject but also connected to others.
After an introduction that analyzes Hamlet to establish a premodern tradition of material virtue, Part I investigates how retellings of the demise of the title female character in Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde, Henryson's Testament of Cresseid, and Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida among other texts structure a poetic debate over the potential for women's ethical action in a world dominated by masculine violence. Part II turns to narratives of female sanctity and feminine perfection, including ones by Chaucer, Bokenham, and Capgrave, to investigate grace, beauty, and intelligence as sources of women's ethical action. In Part III, Crocker examines a tension between women's virtues and household structures, paying particular attention to English Griselda- and shrew-literatures, including Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew. She concludes by looking at Chaucer's Legend of Good Women to consider alternative forms of virtuous behavior for women as well as men.
Introduction. Virtues That Matter
PART I. PRESCRIPTIVE FAILURES
Chapter 1. The Fragility of Virtue, from Chaucer to Lydgate
Chapter 2. The Matter of Virtue, from Henryson to Shakespeare
PART II. GRACE, ENACTED: ROMANCE AND MATERIAL VIRTUE
Chapter 3. Virtue's Grace: Custance and Other Daughters
Chapter 4. Virtue's Knowledge in Lodge and Spenser
PART III. HOMELY VIRTUES
Chapter 5. Shrewish Virtue, from Chaucer to Shakespeare
Conclusion. Legends of Good Women
"The Matter of Virtue is timely and instructive. It is erudite and yet also accessible, suitable for a wide range of readers and interests. It is deeply versed in the history of philosophy and a vast network of critical conversations within medieval and early modern studies, and it treats the scholarly work of others with enormous respect and generosity. Its central theses are bold and thought-provoking."—The Medieval Review
"Attending to the full premodern meaning of virtue as well as to recent feminist philosophy, Holly A. Crocker offers an essential new account of ethical life legible in English texts written during the period of transition from late medieval to early modern. The Matter of Virtue is a timely intervention in the history of literary reading that helps us rethink the gendered ecologies of ethics and virtue."—Patricia Clare Ingham, University of Indiana, Bloomington
"Producing compelling readings of canonical texts and contextualizing the texts among a wealth of theological writings, conduct books, and household management manuals, The Matter of Virtue substantially contributes to feminist scholarship on gender prescriptions, marital relations, and female agency in medieval and early modern literature. Holly A. Crocker convincingly argues that traditional feminine traits such as obedience and endurance should not be diminished or dismissed as passivity but should be regarded as active performances of an embodied ethics of vulnerability."—Mario DiGangi, Lehman College and CUNY Graduate Center